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DSP-API supports various ways of handling textual data:

Text in RDF

Textual data can be included directly in the data stored in DSP-API. This is the default way of handling text in the DSP. There are three ways of representing textual data in DSP-API, two of which are fully supported by DSP-APP and DSP-TOOLS.

Texts stored in RDF can be searched using both full-text search and structured queries.

Simple Text

If a text requires no formatting, it can simply be stored as a string in a knora-base:TextValue. This is sufficient in many cases, especially for shorter texts like names, titles, identifiers, etc.

Text with Formatting

For text requiring regular markup, knora-base:TextValue can be used in combination with the DSP's standard standoff markup.

This allows for the following markup:

  • structural markup
    • paragraphs
    • headings levels 1-6
    • ordered lists
    • unordered lists
    • tables
    • line breaks
    • horizontal rules
    • code blocks
    • block quotes
  • typographical markup
    • italics
    • bold
    • underline
    • strikethrough
    • subscript
    • superscript
  • semantic markup
    • links
    • DSP internal links

DSP-APP provides a text editor for conveniently editing text with standard standoff markup.

More details can be found here.

Text with Custom Markup

It is possible to create custom XML-to-Schema mappings, which allows for creating project specific custom markup for text values. Details can be found here.


Custom markup is not supported by DSP-TOLS and is viewe-only in DSP-APP.
Creating custom markup is relatively involved, so that it should only be used by projects working with complex textual data.

File Based

Text files of various formats (Word, PDF, XML, etc.) can be uploaded to the media file server. For more details, see here

This allows for easy upload and retrieval of the file. However, it does not allow for searching within the file content.


All text values in DSP-API using stanodff markup can be converted to TEI XML as described here.


Improved support for TEI XML is in planning.

Last update: August 21, 2023